The Standing Orders of the House of Commons give all standing committees the mandate to exercise certain general powers. Standing Order 108(2) gives committees the power “to study and report on all matters relating to the mandate, management and operation of the department or departments of government which are assigned to them.” For a more detailed overview of parliamentary committees, please consult the Compendium of House of Commons Procedure.
Natural resources issues have been dealt with in various ways, as House of Commons’ standing committee structures have evolved. During the 34th Parliament (1988-1993), they fell under the mandate of two separate committees, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Forestry and Fisheries and the House of Commons Standing Committee on Energy, Mines and Resources.
As of the 35th Parliament (1994-1997), forestry, energy, mines and resources were under the mandate of a single committee, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Natural Resources.
During the 36th Parliament (1997-2000), the House of Commons underwent changes that led to the creation of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Natural Resources and Government Operations.
At the beginning of the 37th Parliament (2001-2004), the natural resources component was incorporated into the activities of the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Committee, which led to the creation of the new House of Commons Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs, Northern Development and Natural Resources.
During the 38th Parliament (2004-2005), responsibility for natural resources was moved again and merged with the Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology, which became the Standing Committee on Industry, Natural Resources, Science and Technology.
Finally, early in the 39th Parliament in 2006, the natural resources component was moved from the Standing Committee on Industry, Natural Resources, Science and Technology and, as in 1994, placed under the purview of a single committee, the Standing Committee on Natural Resources.
In the execution of its functions, each committee is normally assisted by a committee clerk, an analyst and a committee assistant. Occasional assistance is also provided by legislative clerks and lawyers from the Office of the Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel. All of these individuals are non-partisan and serve all members of the committee and representatives of all parties equally.
The clerk performs his or her duties and responsibilities under the direction of the committee and its Chair. As an expert in the rules of the House of Commons, the clerk may be requested to give advice to the Chair and members of the committee should a question of procedure arise. The clerk is the coordinator, organizer and liaison officer for the committee and as such will be in frequent contact with members’ staff. He or she is also responsible to invite witnesses and to deal with all the details regarding their appearance before the committee.
The committee assistant provides a wide range of specialized administrative services for, in particular, the organization of committee meetings and the publishing of documents on the committees’ website. The committee assistant works with the clerk to meet the needs of committees.
The Library of Parliament’s analysts provide authoritative, substantive, and timely research, analysis and information to all members of the Committee. They are part of the Committee’s institutional memory and are a unique resource for parliamentarians. Supported by research librarians, the analyst works individually or in multidisciplinary teams.
Analysts can prepare: briefing notes on the subjects being examined; detailed study plans; lists of proposed witnesses; analyses of an issue with a list of suggested questions; background papers; draft reports; news releases; and/or formal correspondence. Analysts with legal training can assist the Committee regarding any substantive issues that may arise during the consideration of bills.
OTHER RESOURCES AVAILABLE AS REQUIRED
Within the Office of the Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel, Parliamentary Counsel (Legislation) are available to assist Members who are not in Cabinet in the preparation of private Members’ bills or of amendments to Government bills or others.
At various stages of the legislative process, Members may propose amendments to bills. Amendments may first be proposed at the Committee Stage, during a committee’s clause-by-clause review of a bill. Amendments may also be proposed at the Report Stage, once a bill returns to the House.
Once bill is sent to Committee, the clerk of the Committee provides the name of the Parliamentary Counsel (Legislation) responsible for the drafting of the amendments for a particular bill to the Members.
The legislative clerk serves all members of the Committee as a specialist of the process by which a bill becomes law. They are available to give, upon request from Members and their staff, advice on the admissibility of amendments when bills are referred to Committee. The legislative clerk organizes the amendments into packages for committee stage, reviews all the committee amendments for procedural admissibility and prepares draft rulings for the Chair. During clause-by-clause consideration of bills in committee, a legislative clerk is in attendance to assist the committee concerning any procedural issues that may arise. The legislative clerk can also provide Members with advice regarding the procedural admissibility of Report Stage amendments. When a bill is sent to committee, the clerk of the committee provides to the Members the name of the legislative clerk assigned to the bill.
The Parliamentary Budget Officer (PBO)
The Parliamentary Budget Officer (PBO) has a mandate to support Parliament and parliamentarians in holding the government to account for the good stewardship of public resources. The Federal Accountability Act of 2006 mandates the PBO to provide independent analysis to the Senate and to the House of Commons regarding the state of the nation’s finances, the government estimates and trends in the national economy.
The enabling legislation also provides the PBO with a mandate to provide analytical support to any committee during its consideration of the estimates, as well as provide advice to any Member of Parliament regarding the financial cost of proposals.
The Standing Committee has also examined several bills which were referred to it, in particular (since 2009):
Bill C-46, An Act to amend the National Energy Board Act and the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act (Adopted by the Committee on April 23, 2015; Presented to the House on April 24, 2015)
Bill C-22, An Act respecting Canada's offshore oil and gas operations, enacting the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other Acts (Adopted by the Committee on June 10, 2014; Presented to the House on June 11, 2014)
Bill C-5, An Act to amend the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act, the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and other Acts and to provide for certain other measures (Adopted by the Committee on February 11, 2014; Presented to the House on February 12, 2014)
Bill C-20, An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident (Adopted by the Committee on December 9, 2009; Presented to the House on December 10, 2009)
Bill S-3, An Act to amend the Energy Efficiency Act (Adopted by the Committee on April 28, 2009; Presented to the House on April 29, 2009)
In addition to these studies and bills, the Committee also reviewed the estimates of the government.