Appendix 6 Government Ministries and Prime Ministers of Canada Since 1867

The selection of a Ministry is the Prime Minister’s responsibility, and the Governor General follows the Prime Minister’s advice in formalizing the appointments. The formal initiative in selecting a new Prime Minister rests with the Governor General. The duration of a Ministry is measured by the tenure of its Prime Minister. It is calculated from the day the Prime Minister takes the oath of office to the day the Prime Minister resigns, dies or is dismissed. The resignation of a Prime Minister brings about the resignation of the Ministry as a whole. A Prime Minister who resigns but later returns to form another Ministry is said to be forming a new Ministry. Since Confederation, there have been 28 Ministries.

Ministry Prime Minister (party) Term of Office Parliamentary Period (Years) Reasons for Forming Ministry Reasons for Ending Ministry
First
Sir John A. Macdonald
(Liberal-Conservative)
01-07-1867
to
05-11-1873
1st Parliament to 2nd Session,
2nd Parliament (1867–73)
On May 24, 1867, Sir John A. Macdonald was formally commissioned by the Governor General to form the first government under Confederation.
Resignation
Second
Alexander Mackenzie
(Liberal)
07-11-18731
to
08-10-1878
567
2nd Session,
2nd Parliament to
3rd Parliament (1873–78)
Called upon by the Governor General to form a Ministry following the resignation of Sir John A. Macdonald and his government
Results of general election held on September 17, 1878
Third
Sir John A. Macdonald
(Liberal-Conservative)
17-10-1878
to
06-06-1891
4th Parliament to
1st Session,
7th Parliament (1878–91)
Results of general election held on September 17, 1878
Death of Macdonald on June 6, 1891
Fourth
Sir John Abbott2
(Liberal-Conservative)
16-06-1891
to
24-11-1892
1st Session,
7th Parliament to 2nd Session,
7th Parliament (1891–92)
Called upon by the Governor General to form a Ministry following the death of Sir John A. Macdonald
Resignation
Fifth
Sir John Thompson (Liberal-Conservative)
05-12-1892
to
12-12-1894
3rd Session,
7th Parliament to 4th Session,
7th Parliament (1892–94)
Called upon by the Governor General to form a Ministry following the resignation of Sir John Abbott
Death of Thompson on December 12, 1894
Sixth
Sir Mackenzie Bowell3 (Conservative)
21-12-1894
to
27-04-1896
5th Session,
7th Parliament to 6th Session,
7th Parliament (1894–96)
Called upon by the Governor General to form a Ministry following the death of Sir John Thompson
Resignation
Seventh
Sir Charles Tupper
(Liberal-Conservative)
01-05-1896
to
08-07-1896
During a dissolution4
Called upon by the Governor General to form a Ministry following the resignation of Sir Mackenzie Bowell
Results of general election held on June 23, 1896
Eighth
Sir Wilfrid Laurier
(Liberal)
11-07-1896
to
06-10-1911
8th Parliament to 11th Parliament (1896–1911)
Results of general election held on June 23, 1896
Results of general election held on September 21, 1911
Ninth
Sir Robert Borden
(Conservative)
10-10-1911
to
12-10-1917
12th Parliament (1911–17)
Results of general election held on September 21, 1911
Formation of a new Ministry5
Tenth
Sir Robert Borden6
(Unionist)
12-10-1917
to
10-07-1920
1st Session,
13th Parliament to 4th Session,
13th Parliament (1917–20)
Reorganization
Resignation
Eleventh
Arthur Meighen7
(Unionist; Liberal-Conservative)
10-07-1920
to
29-12-1921
5th Session,
13th Parliament (1921)
Prime Minister Borden recommended that the Governor General call upon Arthur Meighen to succeed him as Prime Minister.
Results of general election held on December 6, 1921
Twelfth
W.L. Mackenzie King
(Liberal)
29-12-1921
to
28-06-1926
14th Parliament
to 1st Session,
15th Parliament (1921–26)
Results of general election held on December 6, 1921
Resignation8
Thirteenth
Arthur Meighen
(Conservative)
29-06-1926
to
25-09-1926
1st Session,
15th Parliament (1926)
With the resignation of W.L. Mackenzie King, the Governor General called upon Arthur Meighen, the Leader of the Opposition, to form a Ministry.
Results of general election held on September 14, 1926
Fourteenth
W.L. Mackenzie King
(Liberal)
25-09-1926
to
07-08-1930
16th Parliament (1926–30)
Results of general election held on September 14, 1926
Results of general election held on July 28, 1930
Fifteenth
R.B. Bennett
(Conservative)
07-08-1930
to
23-10-1935
17th Parliament (1930–35)
Results of general election held on July 28, 1930
Results of general election held on October 14, 1935
Sixteenth
W.L. Mackenzie King
(Liberal)
23-10-1935
to
15-11-1948
18th Parliament to 4th Session,
20th Parliament (1935–48)
Results of general election held on October 14, 1935
Resignation
Seventeenth
Louis St-Laurent
(Liberal)
15-11-1948
to
21-06-1957
5th Session,
20th Parliament to 22nd Parliament (1948–57)
On August 7, 1948, Louis St-Laurent was chosen leader of the Liberal Party of Canada at a party leadership convention. On November 15, 1948, upon the resignation of Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, he was sworn in as Prime Minister.
Results of general election held on June 10, 1957
Eighteenth
John Diefenbaker
(Progressive Conservative)
21-06-1957
to
22-04-1963
23rd Parliament to 25th Parliament (1957–63)
Results of general election held on June 10, 1957
Results of general election held on April 8, 1963
Nineteenth
Lester B. Pearson
(Liberal)
22-04-1963
to
20-04-1968
26th Parliament to 2nd Session,
27th Parliament (1963–68)
Results of general election held on April 8, 1963
Resignation
Twentieth
Pierre E. Trudeau
(Liberal)
20-04-1968
to
03-06-1979
2nd Session,
27th Parliament to 30th Parliament (1968–79)
On April 6, 1968, Pierre E. Trudeau was chosen leader of the Liberal Party of Canada at a party leadership convention. On April 20, 1968, upon the resignation of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, he was sworn in as Prime Minister.
Results of general election held on May 22, 1979
Twenty-First
Joseph Clark
(Progressive Conservative)
04-06-1979
to
02-03-1980
31st Parliament (1979)
Results of general election held on May 22, 1979
Results of general election held on February 18, 1980
Twenty-Second
Pierre E. Trudeau
(Liberal)
03-03-1980
to
29-06-1984
1st Session,
32nd Parliament to 2nd Session,
32nd Parliament (1980–84)
Results of general election held on February 18, 1980
Resignation
Twenty-Third
John Turner9
(Liberal)
30-06-1984
to
16-09-1984
2nd Session,
32nd Parliament (1984)
On June 16, 1984, John Turner was chosen leader of the Liberal Party of Canada at a party leadership convention. On June 30, 1984, upon the resignation of Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau, he was sworn in as Prime Minister.
Results of general election held on September 4, 1984
Twenty-Fourth
Brian Mulroney
(Progressive Conservative)
17-09-1984
to
24-06-1993
33rd Parliament to 3rd Session,
34th Parliament (1984–93)
Results of general election held on September 4, 1984
Resignation
Twenty-Fifth
Kim Campbell
(Progressive Conservative)
25-06-1993
to
03-11-1993
3rd Session,
34th Parliament (1993)10
On June 13, 1993, Kim Campbell was chosen leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada at a party leadership convention. On June 25, 1993, upon the resignation of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, she was sworn in as Prime Minister.
Results of general election held on October 25, 1993
Twenty-Sixth
Jean Chrétien
(Liberal)
04-11-1993
to
11-12-2003
35th Parliament to 2nd Session,
37th Parliament (1993–2003)
Results of general election held on October 25, 1993
Resignation
Twenty-Seventh
Paul Martin
(Liberal)
12-12-2003
to
05-02-2006
3rd Session,
37th Parliament to 38th Parliament (2003–06)
On November 14, 2003, Paul Martin was chosen leader of the Liberal Party of Canada at a party leadership convention. On December 12, 2003, upon the resignation of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, he was sworn in as Prime Minister.
Results of general election held on January 23, 2006
Twenty-Eighth
Stephen Harper
(Conservative)
06-02-2006
to
03-11-2015
1st Session, 39th Parliament to
41st Parliament
(2006–15)
Results of general election held on January 23, 2006
Results of general election held on October 19, 2015
Twenty-Ninth
Justin Trudeau
(Liberal)
04-11-2015
to Present
1st session, 42nd Parliament to Present
(2015– )
Results of general election held on October 19, 2015