In further answer to that question, there's also private member's legislation in France by Valérie Boyer, as there is now in New South Wales, Australia, by David Shoebridge. Also, Patrik Vankrunkelsven was one of the senators in Belgium, so we have a number of precedents to look at.
In terms of my remarks, I just want to go as briefly as I can through some of the evidence that led us to our conclusion. I have a number of evidentiary strands I want to point out to you, 12 strands in all.
The first is that the Communist Party conducted and conducts a prolonged, persistent, and vitriolic campaign of incitement to hatred again Falun Gong, prompting their marginalization, depersonalization, and dehumanization in the eyes of many Chinese nationals.
The second is the forced labour camp phenomenon, which my colleague David Kilgour talked about. Not only are these forced labour camps arbitrary detention and slave labour camps, but they're also vast live organ donor banks.
Third, many Falun Gong practitioners are the subject of disappearance complaints by family members. The authorities often refuse to notify the families of their detention. As well, practitioners are not allowed to contact their families. Many more practitioners, in an attempt to protect their families and communities, have not identified themselves once arrested. Those unidentified are a particularly vulnerable population.
Let me quote Ms. Na Gan, who lives in Toronto now:
From 2001 to 2002, I was held in a detention center.... During that time, the authorities detained lots of Falun Gong practitioners who went to Beijing to appeal. ... In order to escape further persecution, of both themselves and their family members, many practitioners did not tell their real names and where they were from. Each practitioner was identified with a 4-digit number. ... One night, I was awoken by some noises. All the Falun Gong practitioners who were numbered were being dragged out of the prison cells, and none of them came back.
Fourth, huge money can be made in China from transplants. Charges to foreigners, which were once available on a Chinese website and which now we have archived, range from $30,000 U.S. for corneas to $180,000 U.S. for a liver-kidney combination.
Fifth, investigators made calls to hospitals throughout China claiming to be relatives of patients needing transplants and asking if the hospitals had organs of Falun Gong for sale, on the basis that since Falun Gong, through their exercises, are healthy, the organs would be healthy. We obtained on tape and then transcribed and translated admissions throughout China.
Sixth, Falun Gong practitioners who were detained and later got out of detention and out of China testified that they were systematically blood-tested and organ-examined while in detention. The blood testing and organ examination could not have been for the health of the Falun Gong, since they had been tortured, but it would have been necessary for organ transplants and for building a bank of donors.
Seventh, waiting times for transplant of organs in China are days and weeks. Everywhere else in the world, waiting times are years or months. Transplants of long-dead donors are not viable because of organ deterioration after death. A short waiting time for deceased donor transplant means the presence of a large bank of living organ sources ready to be killed in order to assure such short waiting times. We have quotes from the websites of Chinese hospitals advertising these short times.
Eighth, in a few cases, family members of Falun Gong practitioners were able to see mutilated corpses of their loved ones between death and cremation. Organs had been removed. We even have some photos of that.
Ninth, we engaged in extensive interviews of organ recipients and their family members. Organ transplant surgery, we found out, is conducted in almost total secrecy. Recipients and their support network are not told the identity of the donors, nor are they shown written consent of donors. The identities of the operating doctor and support staff are often not disclosed, despite requests for information.
One interviewee told us that a military doctor tested the compatibility of seven prior kidneys before a successful match for one was found at a hospital. The doctor carried sheets of paper containing lists of prospective sources based on tissue and blood characteristics, from which he would select the source. The doctor was observed at various times to leave the hospital in army uniform and return two or three hours later with containers holding kidneys.
Tenth, we interviewed the ex-wife of a surgeon from Sujiatun district in Shenyang City in Liaoning. She told us that her surgeon husband told her that he removed corneas from 2,000 Falun Gong practitioners, at which time he refused to continue. The surgeon made it clear to his wife that none of these sources survived the experience because other surgeons removed other vital organs and all of the bodies were then burned.
A transcript of the interview can be found in an appendix to our report.
The details of the story the wife told were similar to what Dr. Wang Guoqi told the U.S. Congress about his own work in harvesting organs from prisoners, which was initially vehemently denied and then years later admitted by the Government of China. The only substantial difference in the two stories was the type of prisoners from whom organs were extracted.
Eleventh, 200 kilometres away from Sujiatun, in Xinju, an individual named Wang Lijun conducted research on a lingering injection execution method that would allow organ removal for transplants before the person died from injection. He conducted further research to prevent patients who received organs of injected prisoners from suffering adverse effects from the injection drugs.
In September 2006 this individual, Wang Lijun, received an award for his research and testing. In his acceptance speech, which was posted on the Internet, he talked about “thousands” of on-site organ transplant cases from injected prisoners in which he and his staff participated, and he said, and I quote, “To see somebody being killed and to see this person's organs being translated to several other persons' bodies is profoundly stirring”, a remark that would have been worthy of Josef Mengele.
I point out that Wang Lijun was the prime assistant of Bo Xilai.
One of the calls the investigators made, which we used for our report, was a call that was placed to Jinzhou, the place where this fellow Wang Lijun was working. Here's a quote from that exchange:
Investigator: Starting from 2001, we always got kidneys from young and healthy people who practised Falun Gong from detention centres and courts. ... I wonder if you still have such organs in your court right now?
Official: That depends on your qualifications. ... If you have good qualifications, we may still provide some. ...
Investigator: Are we supposed to get them, or will you prepare for them?
Official: According to past experience, it is you who will come here to get them.
In February 2012 Wang Lijun, who was at the time deputy mayor and police chief in Chongqing, visited the American consulate in Chengdu for a full day. My colleague David Kilgour has mentioned this letter of U.S. congressmen and congresswomen asking for the State Department to release information, and that letter asked for details that Wang Lijun is believed to have transmitted during his attempted sanctuary at the U.S. consulate in February.
Number 12, the final point, is that there's no other explanation for the transplant numbers than sourcing from Falun Gong. China's the second-largest country in the world after the U.S., yet until 2010 China did not have a deceased donation system, and even today that system produces donations that are statistically insignificant. The living donor sources are limited in law to relatives of donors and are officially discouraged because live donors suffer health complications from giving up an organ.
The number of prisoners sentenced to death and then executed that would be necessary to supply the volume of transplants in China is far greater than even the most exaggerated death penalty statistics and estimates, in the tens of thousands. Moreover, in recent years death penalty volumes have gone down, but transplant volumes, except for a short blip in 2007, have remained constant.
Our report has a myriad of recommendations, and David Kilgour has mentioned some in the text that is part of the record. I would ask the committee to pass a resolution on this subject. I'd like to emphasize the fact that China's coming up before the universal periodic review at the United Nations Human Rights Council working group this October, and Canada should take advantage of that.
I would like to commend the subcommittee for convening this hearing. The issue is serious enough to justify action.
In principle, the worst victims need to be given the most attention and the highest priority. This subcommittee should follow that principle when addressing human rights violations in China by a continuing focus on organ transplant abuse in China, the victimization of prisoners of conscience, and Falun Gong in particular.
Thank you very much.