FAIT Committee Report
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REINVIGORATING ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN CANADA AND ASIA-PACIFIC
Introduction TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Asia-Pacific region is home to over half of the world’s population, and includes several of the world’s largest economies. Japan ranks only behind the US as the second largest, with China likely to replace her in this position in the very near future. India, with a population of over one billion, has just begun an economic growth spurt that will likely result in her joining the top ranks of the world's economies in the near future. A regional grouping, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which includes dynamos like Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore, is profiting from its location in the geographic centre of the region, to generate dramatic economic growth of its own. Individual economies like the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Australia are adding their own dynamism to the mix, helping to make the Asia-Pacific region the single most promising place in the world for trade and investment for the coming decades.
On the domestic front, one particularly noteworthy development in recent years, which has substantial implications for our trade with the Asia-Pacific, is the fact that over 50 percent of immigration to Canada comes from this region. Many of these new Canadians maintain important connections, including business links, with their countries of origin. World-wide immigration trends are likely to influence future trade flows, and while the US and Europe are primarily receiving immigrants from Latin America and the Mediterranean respectively, Canada is clearly becoming increasingly tied to Asia-Pacific.
Given the tremendous business opportunities that exist in the region, the Government agrees fully with the Standing Committee that co-ordinated action must be taken to ensure that Canadian companies are making an appropriate level of effort, and that wherever possible, all impediments to Canadian initiatives in the region are removed or mitigated. The Government has been aware for some time that Canada’s share of trade and investment in Asia-Pacific is shrinking for a variety of reasons, many of them beyond our control and not necessarily cause for concern. For example, the phenomenal growth of intra-regional trade is a major factor in Canada’s declining share of trade, but this growth is in itself a very positive development which ultimately creates greater opportunities for all. In dollar terms, Canada’s overall two-way trade with the region has actually been increasing steadily, and Canadian investment in the region has doubled over the past 5-6 years. Nonetheless, Canada’s apparently weaker performance compared to our competitors in the region deserves attention.
The Government is pleased to note that work has already begun and is currently underway in most of the areas of need identified in the Report, and we are pleased to add the Report recommendations to our consideration of these improvements. The recent appointment of a Minister of State for New and Emerging Markets was very much in response to the perceived need to address opportunities in the dynamic, emerging markets of the Asia-Pacific region, particularly two markets already identified as priorities, China and India.
Some of the Report’s recommendation have policy or funding implications which cannot be fully answered in this time of overall Government review, particularly in the trade policy and budgetary areas, but the views of the Standing Committee will be factored into these analyses.
Canada’s economic relations with Asia-Pacific are of great importance for the future prosperity of Canada, and concerted effort is warranted to ensure that opportunities are fully realised. The Government therefore appreciates the careful work the Committee has undertaken to study this matter, and formulate the broad range of recommendations included in its report.
Recommendation 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That in light of the tremendous economic opportunities in Asia-Pacific, as well as the importance of trade growth to maintaining Canada’s standard of living, the federal government make the expansion of economic ties with Asia-Pacific its number one policy priority for increased trade and investment with countries outside of the NAFTA area.
Recommendation 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, although it has already identified China, Japan and India as its priority markets in Asia-Pacific, the Canadian government ensure that opportunities to improve economic ties with other countries in the region are not missed. These opportunities are particularly evident in South Korea and the leading members of the ASEAN community - Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia - among others.
Recommendation 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That when working to enhance trade and investment ties with Asia-Pacific, the federal government not only focus on encouraging Canadian exports and outbound investment, but also look for ways to attract more foreign direct investment into Canada from the region. In particular, more should be done to encourage investment from emerging economies.
In order to meet its objectives of attracting and retaining strategic foreign direct investment (FDI) including from emerging markets, IPC has developed Activity Plans for each market. The major components of these Activity Plans vary across markets but generally include target identification, domestic outcalls, hosting incoming and outgoing missions, and servicing incoming enquiries.
In addition, IPC produces promotional tools, supports signature events, and conducts cost comparative analyses promoting Canada as an investment destination. It also helps municipalities directly through financial support for their own strategic targeting of foreign investors.
Recommendation 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Because a sustained effort is needed in order to yield meaningful results, the federal government should not give Asia-Pacific intermittent attention as in the past, but commit itself to a long-term strategy for expanding trade and investment with the region.
Recommendation 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the Government of Canada negotiate with Japan, and any other country where one is needed, a Social Security Agreement that eliminates the need for companies to contribute to social security programs in both countries when benefits can only be collected in one.
In the case of Japan, the Canadian Chamber of Commerce in Japan (CCCJ) has raised such a request with the Government of Canada. In response, Canada has held unofficial preparatory meetings with Japan, the last of which, in October 2003, was to exchange information on the Canadian and Japanese pension systems. Additional meetings are expected in 2004. While Japan has responded favourably to our request for the conclusion of a social security agreement, we have not yet secured dates for the commencement of formal negotiations. We continue to press Japan for an early resolution.
Recommendation 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the federal government seek out and negotiate free trade agreements on an ongoing basis with any countries with which Canada shares a free trade vision and respect for human rights. Steps should be taken to ensure that the government has a sufficient number of well-trained negotiators to carry out this mandate.
Recommendation 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That Canada adopt a trade negotiating strategy in which Parliamentarians play a more active role. Parliamentarians should be consulted when the basic framework of the Canadian position in future trade negotiations is determined. Officials in charge of negotiations would be bound to stay within this broad framework and through the process of negotiations would provide regular updates on progress and challenges to interested and/or concerned Parliamentarians or Parliamentary Committees. Finally, and beginning with the Canada-Singapore free trade negotiations, Parliamentarians should be consulted before any tentative agreement is signed.
The Action Plan will enhance longstanding practices and procedures for ensuring that Parliamentarians express their own views and those of their constituents. For example, the Minister of International Trade invited the Standing Committee for Foreign Affairs and International Trade (SCFAIT) to do work on the WTO and FTAA which resulted in the May 2002 SCFAIT report "Building an Effective New Round of WTO Negotiations: Key Issues for Canada" and the June 2002 SCFAIT report "Strengthening Canada's Economic Links with the Americas". These reports provided useful and valuable contributions to the Government as it was about to enter a critical stage in those negotiations. Ministers, supported by their Parliamentary Secretaries, and with the assistance of their staff and departmental officials, will increasingly seek the support of Parliamentarians on priorities and issues in their portfolio. The Government would therefore encourage interested Parliamentarians to work with the Minister of International Trade to make full use of existing consultative mechanisms, in particular, Parliamentary Committees, to enhance their contribution in the process of citizen engagement. The Government has made a commitment to provide Committees with additional resources for research in the preparation of their reports, and will continue to ensure that access to information and briefings on the issues are at hand.
Canadian Parliamentarians are a potent force in encouraging discussion on the direction of Canada's multilateral, regional and bilateral trade negotiations and agreements through their active involvement in various inter-parliamentary networks and associations. The Government looks forward to benefitting further from the expertise acquired by Canadian Parliamentarians through their involvement in parliamentary diplomacy initiatives, typified by their participation as members of the Canadian Governmental Delegation to the WTO and FTAA Ministerials in Fall 2003, as well as their involvement in public symposia sponsored by the WTO, the OECD, and other fora.
Parliamentarians also play a critical role in promoting greater transparency and citizen engagement in identifying Canada's trade priorities, and in articulating domestic and international concerns by and for their constituents. Teams of Parliamentarians will be established and given a direct mandate to consult with Canadians, particularly youth. Once the implementing legislation is adopted by Parliament enabling the Government to ratify a trade agreement, Parliamentarians will be in a position to build greater awareness of the benefits of trade for all Canadians.
Furthermore, the role of Parliamentary Secretaries has been expanded recently to enhance the relations between Ministers and Parliamentarians. They will play an active role in policy development and will be assigned specific responsibilities by the Prime Minister on key policy issues. To reinforce their expanded role, they have been sworn in as Privy Councillors so they can be invited to Cabinet and Cabinet Committee discussions as appropriate. They will play a pivotal role in representing the concerns of Parliamentarians to their Minister and within government more broadly.
Recommendation 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, given the importance of trade and investment in stimulating economic growth, and the need for a stable legal and regulatory environment to attract investment, the Government of Canada provide increased support to least developed countries for trade-related technical, policy and legal reforms.
A key multilateral conduit of Canadian assistance is the Integrated Framework, which has been formed by a number of donor countries and six participating agencies (the WTO, World Bank, UNCTAD, UNDP, International Trade Centre and International Monetary Fund). Contributions of $2 million place Canada among the top donors. The Integrated Framework is intended to ensure a demand-driven approach to Trade related Technical Assistance and Capacity Building (TRTA/CB), co-ordinate delivery of TRTA/CB, and encourage better collaboration among the donors.
Integrated Framework Initiatives in Cambodia are indicative of the types of assistance being provided in the areas of trade-related technical, policy and legal reforms. The IMF has provided assistance in drafting an Insolvency Law. An International Trade Centre survey provided market intelligence to suppliers of specific agricultural products in Cambodia and analyzed the existing constraints in import sectors. UNCTAD has been the lead on training for trade negotiations and WTO accession. And in response to the World Bank’s Diagnostic Study, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) provided funding ($180,000) to the Cambodian Ministry of Commerce for establishing a Commercial Court and Commercial Arbitration Tribunal, as per requirements for accession to the WTO.
Furthermore, CIDA recently initiated a $9 million project to build the capacity of Asian countries to negotiate accession to the WTO and implement their WTO commitments over the period 2004-2009. Of the six eligible developing countries, two are least developed, non-APEC members, Cambodia and Lao PDR. CIDA also is exploring two significant trade-related capacity development initiatives with Bangladesh. These should be well advanced by early 2004.
In addition, Canada is an active provider of trade-related technical assistance and capacity-building in APEC, and co-chairs APEC's WTO Capacity Building Group, which promotes donor coordination and information-sharing on TRTA/CB.
It should also be noted that the Government maintains a Trade Facilitation Office in Ottawa which offers direct assistance to exporters from developing countries in accessing the Canadian market.
Recommendation 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That in cases where issues such as agriculture protection prevents a comprehensive free trade agreement from being negotiated, Canada should instead pursue alternative economic co-operation agreements that promote trade or pursue sectoral agreements within the WTO. Free trade in services is an example of such an agreement.
Recommendation 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That to demonstrate its commitment to improving economic ties, as well as to cultivate a closer working relationship with Asia-Pacific, the federal government significantly increase the number of visits to key markets in the region by ministers, parliamentarians and senior government officials. Furthermore, these official visits should be more consistent, strategic and focused on achieving specific policy objectives.
Recommendation 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the federal government invite willing provinces to jointly develop a national strategy on international education to more aggressively promote Canada as a study destination for international students.
The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade hosts a semi-annual national education marketing roundtable with participation from provincial ministries of education, provincial education marketing agencies, national education associations and other federal government departments to more effectively and collaboratively market Canada as an attractive study destination offering leading edge education and learning services and products through its world class education institutions. This forum provides an effective means to establish a common approach and synergies. The Government is also actively supporting the programs of implementation of those provinces which have developed international promotion and marketing strategies.
The Education Marketing Advisory Board, which advises the Minister for International Trade, is a representative high level body with experts drawn from all provinces, including national education associations and provincial and federal officials as observers.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) is working closely with provincial partners on a number of pilot projects designed to test new approaches to making Canada a destination of choice for foreign students, and offering them opportunities to gain practical work experience and consider Canada as a permanent place of residence. These pilot projects include priority processing for student permits (Memorandum of Understanding signed with Alberta and under negotiation with British Columbia), off-campus employment for foreign students (MOU signed with Manitoba and under negotiation with New Brunswick and Quebec) and authorization of a second year of employment for foreign student graduates of publicly funded institutions (Memorandum of Understanding signed with Alberta and New Brunswick). If the pilot projects are successful and resources permit, national implementation may be considered.
Provinces are actively supportive of those federal initiatives which benefit provincial educational institutions in the international arena. These include the Canadian Education Centre Network (CECN) which was established by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) specifically to promote Canada as a study destination, and to which DFAIT and CIDA have provided funding support. The CECN promotes the education services offered by its 300 Canadian clients through the nineteen offices it operates overseas.
Recommendation 12 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the federal government work with the provinces to develop a certification program for education institutions to protect Canada’s integrity and reputation and to prevent immigration scams and abuses.
The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) liaises and consults with provincial ministries of education and works closely with the Canadian Education Centres Network, associations representing educational institutions, and other authorities, to respond to enquiries from missions abroad and, through them, to provide accurate information to foreign education authorities and students.
On December 13, 2003 the government published draft regulations in the Canada Gazette which, if they are implemented as planned in April 2004, will implement a new regime for fee charging immigration representatives. Effective April 2004 any individual who wishes to represent an immigration client before CIC or the Immigration and Refugee Board will have to be a member in good standing of either the Canadian Society of Immigration Consultants (CSIC) or a provincial or territorial law society. CSIC, which is a new independent self-regulating body for immigration consultants, is developing a mandatory code of conduct, training plan and complaints and discipline mechanism that will enhance the consumer protection provided to immigration clients including prospective foreign students.
There are several ways education institutions are assessed in Canada, including designation, certification and accreditation:
The Department of Human Resources and Skills Development is responsible within the federal government for managing the Designation Master List which includes all Canadian and international post-secondary education institutions that meet provincial designation criteria according to an assessment process on quality of education and ability to provide educational services. This list of institutions could be shared with other countries seeking assurance of bona fides. With respect to private education institutions this is often a two step process as most provinces require the institution to be accredited or to have met all requirements under respective private vocational acts before becoming designated.
Under the responsibility of Council of Ministers of Education of Canada the Canadian Information Centre on International Credentials (CICIC) is developing lists of recognized Canadian institutions as a full member of the European National Information Centres whose 53 members include Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Member countries have the obligation through a UNESCO convention to provide information on bona fide institutions. Discussions are underway with China regarding provisions of information on bona fide institutions in each country, similar to the bilateral arrangements China has signed with several countries.
Certification. Under the current Income Tax Act, educational institutions must apply and be approved for certification so that they may issue a Tuition and Education Tax Certificate (T2202A) to enrolled students.
Under the authority of the Income Tax Act (Sections 118.5 and 118.6) the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development is responsible for determining the eligibility of a private educational institution offering courses - other than those designed for university credits - that are specifically designed to furnish a person with skills for, or to improve a person's skills in, a recognized occupation. Authority for all decisions related to income tax remains the mandate of the Minister of Revenue.
Accreditation. Provinces play a key role in the accreditation process in which specific institutions or programs, (generally professional programs), are examined either by provincial governments or by self-governing professional bodies with respect to the quality of education provided to students.
Some schools are unregulated in that they are not designated, certified, or accredited because they offer training that does not lead directly to employment (for example, language schools, driving instruction for non-commercial vehicles, health and fitness, and tax preparation) and because students are not eligible for student loans. These programs are non-vocational in nature, and businesses offering them are generally not required to register under a province’s private career colleges (or private vocational schools) act.
Recommendation 13 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, in an effort to more effectively promote Canadian institutions in Asia-Pacific, as well as to improve linkages between Canadian alumni in the region, the Canadian government, in collaboration with the provinces and the institutions themselves, encourage the Canadian Education Centre Network to work closely with, and strengthen, Canadian alumni associations abroad. The necessary financial support to perform this function should be provided.
Recommendation 14 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, without compromising the safety and security of Canadians, the federal government ensure that legitimate travel to Canada is not unnecessarily restricted.
The decision to facilitate the travel of Chinese tourists to Canada by approving Canada as an approved destination for Chinese tourists rests with the government of China and the issue is, therefore, beyond the control of the government of Canada. However we are working on trying to obtain this status, and are hopeful of doing so in the very near future. Applicants for temporary resident (visitor) visas in India have a number of ways in which they may submit their applications. First, they may present their applications in person at the Canadian High Commission (CHC) in New Delhi and receive a decision on that same day. Second, if they have proven track records of travel they, or a third party, may submit their applications in a drop box at the High Commission and receive a decision the next day. This method is commonly used by travellers whose travel agents submit the applications on their behalf. Third, if they prefer not to travel to New Delhi clients may submit their applications by mail and receive a decision in two weeks. The CHC in New Delhi processes in excess of 30,000 temporary resident (visitor) visas per year by these various methods. The visa section in New Delhi also liaises closely with the trade section of the High Commission in order to ensure an appropriate degree of facilitation of legitimate Indian businesspersons’ travel to Canada.
The visa section at the Canadian Embassy in Bangkok, Thailand normally processes all applicants for temporary resident (visitor) visas on the day on which they present themselves. There are a few occasions during the high season when the number of applicant exceeds the capacity of the visa section to process them on that day. This is an unusual occurrence and the numbers involved are small. The level of client service offered by the visa section in Bangkok has not been a source of complaints or representations, and there is no numerical limitation to the number of visas that can be issued.
Recommendation 15 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the federal government examine ways to further remove impediments to establishing commercial air travel connections between Canada and key markets in Asia-Pacific.
The management of existing air transport agreements with Asian economies remains a high priority for Canada. During 2003-2004 Canadian officials, including the Canadian Embassies abroad, have been active in efforts to remove barriers posed by airport slot restrictions in Japan and business tax issues in the People’s Republic of China. Close co-operation between transport and health authorities throughout the region also served to mitigate the negative economic consequences of SARS on the air transport industry.
With respect to India, Canadian negotiators engaged in extensive negotiations with the Russian Federation to pursue the shortest, most efficient route for Canadian airlines to India through Russian airspace. As a result, Air Canada now is able to fly non-stop from Toronto to New Delhi.
Recommendation 16 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That when issuing travel advisories in Asia-Pacific, the Government of Canada distinguish between essential and non-essential travel. At the same time, given the large size of many countries in the region, advisories should be as specific to particular locations as possible without jeopardizing the safety of Canadians in the process.
All of our travel advice follows the same set of standards, regardless of which region of the world it concerns. The wording "essential" and "non-essential" leaves too much room for interpretation: while some may see business, education, or humanitarian grounds as the only "essential" reasons to travel, others interpret "essential" travel as something as simple as a family visit. That is why the major distinction in our “Travel Warnings” is between “Canadians” and “Canadian tourists.” “Canadians” includes all citizens, whether they travel for business, education, humanitarian concerns, or pleasure. “Canadian tourists” refers to travellers who are visiting a country for vacation, cultural, or other non-business, educational, or humanitarian reasons.
Whenever possible, our "Travel Warnings" refer to specified regions, rather than encompassing the whole country.
Recommendation 17 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, as part of a broader strategy to promote long-term trade and investment with Asia-Pacific, new programs that encourage personal exchanges with the region be explored and existing ones expanded. In particular, the Canadian government should consider expanding its Working Holiday Program to include more Asia-Pacific countries and to allow more Canadian youth to participate.
In 2003, the large and growing Working Holiday Program also provided numerous opportunities for exchange between Canada and Asia-Pacific. Fifty percent of the exchanges under the Working Holiday Program (WHP) have occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. In recent years the quotas for Japan and Australia have more than doubled. In 2004, Korea's quota will be increased from the current 200 to 500 reciprocally, New Zealand will more than double with an increase from 800 to 2,000 for the same period and Australia will increase to 8000. An aggressive trans-Canada advertising campaign has been launched in major markets to increase the awareness of Canadian youth about the program and its opportunities. We will continue to seek opportunities for reciprocal Working Holiday Programs.
In February 2004, the Government further demonstrated its commitment to involving Canadian youth more extensively in personal exchange programs abroad through the announcement of the creation of a Canada Corps. The details are yet to be finalised, but there is every expectation that exchanges with Asia-Pacific will figure prominently in this program.
Recommendation 18 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, the Government of Canada review the mandate of the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada and ensure that through stable funding it is an effective tool in delivering the information and services that it provides. While conducting this review, the government should also review the effectiveness of other networks for business such as the Canadian Chamber of Commerce.
Recommendation 19 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the federal government work in conjunction with other countries to harmonize statistical methodologies in the collection of international trade data.
There are several reasons for these differences, many related to diligence in import data gathering and a few related to methodology. The Government is working through Statistics Canada to address the underlying issues. For example, a process of merchandise trade reconciliation with key trading partners has been underway for several years, and special attention has been paid to Canada's major trading partners in Asia - China, Japan, and Korea. Statistics Canada also engages in a data exchange with their US counterparts, our largest trading partner, so that we use each others' imports data in place of export data. Certainly, better enforcement of Canadian requirements for filing export documentation would go a long way in further narrowing the problem. However, given that under-reporting can arise for perfectly legitimate reasons, such as re-exporting, even when all export documentation is filed, enforcement alone will not solve the problem. Canadian statisticians are making progress, but are a long way off from resolving the problems of under-reporting that are shared by all international trade-gathering statistical agencies around the world.
Recommendation 20 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, given the evidence that many Canadian companies are not sufficiently knowledgeable about the challenges of exporting and investing in Asia-Pacific markets, the Canadian government improve the effectiveness of its Team Canada Inc export-preparedness service. Specifically, it should determine if prospective exporters are aware of, and are using, this service, and whether or not it adequately prepares Canadian businesses for the challenges of exporting to overseas markets.
Preparing new exporters will remain a constant challenge for TCI as companies become active internationally for the first time, or seek to expand to difficult markets such as those in Asia-Pacific. It should be noted that many firms choose consciously or otherwise not to take advantage of readily available in-Canada government services prior to entering foreign markets. TCI strives to align its exporter preparation efforts with client need and demand, and is continually looking at ways to improve service effectiveness. Through its network of offices and affiliates across the country - particularly International Trade Centres and Regional Trade Networks operating in each province, TCI will continue to reach out and offer market entry support and counselling services to these clients. The newly-created Department of International Trade (a key TCI member) intends to focus particular attention on exporter preparation service delivery in the future.
Recommendation 21 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, in the interests of improving export-readiness and removing the obstacles to trade and investment in Asia-Pacific, the Government of Canada work with businesses that have demonstrated success in the region to establish criteria by which to evaluate the business plans and export-preparedness of Canadian SMEs looking to the Asia-Pacific market. Contingent upon meeting these criteria, SMEs would be provided with financial assistance to help offset the cost of travel to begin to put that plan into action.
Recommendation 22 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the Canadian government, through the Trade Commissioner Services overseas, work with Canadian business associations operating in key Asia-Pacific markets to set up a mentorship program that would allow Canadian firms already established in those markets to share their knowledge and experience with new entrants in the region.
Recommendation 23 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the federal government open three small business incubation facilities in Asia-Pacific - in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. These facilities would provide incoming Canadian small businesses with temporary use of office space and access to basic business services in order to ease their entry into the region.
Recommendation 24 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, as part of a long-term strategy to build Canada’s economic relationship with Asia-Pacific, as well as to exhibit Canadian technology and expertise, the federal government more effectively encourage Canadian small businesses to participate in trade shows and exhibitions in Asia-Pacific and provide increased financial assistance for SMEs to attend those events.
That, to improve trade, investment and Canada’s image in Asia-Pacific, the Government of Canada encourage a significantly greater number of joint trade missions to the region involving the participation of businesses along with federal, provincial and/or territorial government leaders. Instead of broad-based delegations such as Team Canada missions, smaller missions focused on specific sectors should be favoured.
Recommendation 26 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That, in recognition of the critical role played by Canada’s Trade Commissioner Service in promoting international trade and investment, and the importance of trade and investment to Canada’s standard of living, the Canadian government substantially increase its funding of the Trade Commissioner Service in order to raise the number of trade officers operating abroad, particularly the number of sectoral specialists. The increase in resources should be concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region with the goal of Asia-Pacific accounting for 50% of all TCS expenditures abroad.
Recommendation 27 TABLE OF CONTENTS
That the Government of Canada extend the length of term of international postings for its trade officers to a period of five years.